Shor’s algorithm is a quantum algorithm for factoring a number N in O((log N)3) time and O(log N) space, named after Peter Shor.
The algorithm is significant because it implies that public key cryptography might be easily broken, given a sufficiently large quantum computer. RSA, for example, uses a public key N which is the product of two large prime numbers. One way to crack RSA encryption is by factoring N, but with classical algorithms, factoring becomes increasingly time-consuming as N grows large; more specifically, no classical algorithm is known that can factor in time O((log N)k) for any k. By contrast, Shor’s algorithm can crack RSA in polynomial time. It has also been extended to attack many other public key cryptosystems.
Like all quantum computer algorithms, Shor’s algorithm is probabilistic: it gives the correct answer with high probability, and the probability of failure can be decreased by repeating the algorithm.
Shor’s algorithm was demonstrated in 2001 by a group at IBM, which factored 15 into 3 and 5, using a quantum computer with 7 qubits.